Tag Archives: Cat-Scratch Disease

Impact of Climate Change on Insect-borne Diseases

The existence of global warming has been extensively discussed and hotly debated for decades across oceans and continents. Most of the discussions have been focusing on climate change, increased incident of natural disasters, negative impact on farming and fishery, wildlife survival and the resultant human suffering because of all these negativities.

With the sudden outbreak of mosquitoes-borne Zika virus in Central and South America countries, it appears global warming likely to bring forth another serious threat to the public- the spread of pandemic diseases in areas that are previously spared from. According to an American biologist, Daniel Brooks – “whenever the planet has faced a major climate change event, man-made or not, species have moved around and their pathogens have come into contact with species with no resistance.” The alarming rate of birth defects attributed to Zika virus is a good example of dire consequences of the chance encounter between usually benign pathogens with non-immune species. Zika virus named after the Zika Forest of Uganda was identified in 1947. Prior to 2015, Zika fever is under the radar of most world health authorities as it causes minor discomfort at most. It is now reached pandemic levels in several Central and South America countries with suspected link to unusually high numbers of babies born with microcephaly (congenital condition of severely undeveloped brain) and a neurologic conditions in adults, Guillain–Barré syndrome.

With escalating temperature, changed rainfall systems, increased human mobility and globalization, the World Health Organization has found it is necessary to remap the landscape of water-borne and vector diseases. According to WHO, a worldwide temperature rise of 2-3 C likely translate to additional 3-5% (several million) of people risking contracting malaria, another disease that is spread by mosquitoes. Female Aedes aegypti, the daytime-active mosquito that carries Yellow Fever, Zika, and other diseases, thrive in warmer conditions with plenty of stagnant water. Many other insects, including fleas and certain species of ticks, also spread faster during warmer climate. A prolong spell of temperature could see cat-scratch disease and tick-borne diseases spiking around your neighborhood.

According to Dr Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, a WHO climate change expert scientist – “Infectious agents in water will proliferate with more flooding. It’s clear that we need to strengthen our surveillance and response to a range of diseases. Globalization, the movement of people, is an important factor too. In a world where we are disrupting the climate system, we’ll have to pay the price for that.”


How to Stop a Cat from Biting or Scratching

House cats by nature are calm and loving beings. They are also pretty smart, they will go to great length to avoid hurting their humans. However, it wouldn’t be too difficult to imagine a cat taking a swipe at a cheeky kid that is pulling its tail or a cat engaging in an energetic play forget itself and take a nip. A cat scratch or bite can be infectious and develop into annoying diseases such as cat-scratch disease and is best to avoid it. It is handy to know ways to prevent scratching and biting, and how to response when the cat is on the war path.

If You Have Been Bitten or Scratched:

  • Retain your composure. Never yell, hit, or chase after your cat. These actions are counterproductive in the long run.
  • Instead, use your voice and body to signal a disapproval by saying “NO” immediately firmly and authoritatively. Stare at the cat to signal your annoyance as well as dominance. For cheekier or aggressive cat, you may need to clap your hands loudly once or twice while simultaneously saying “NO” to further emphasize your dominance.
  • Disengage yourself from the cat as soon as possible. Stop touching the cat immediately, move your limbs under attack well out of its striking range. Walk away dismissively and leave the room until the cat has calmed down. The signal of disapproval must be consistent, cuddling, petting, or soothing must be denied temporarily for at least 20 – 30 minutes.
  • A way out for the cat. If a snarling, hissing cat is blocking the way, preventing you from leaving the room, it is likely it feels trapped and interprets your walking towards him as trouble, defense by attacking is on the radar. The best thing to do in this situation is simply to step aside and let the cat pass first before going your way.
  • Refrain from giving treats or food to the cat for 20 – 30 minutes following a scratching or biting incident. You would not want the cat to have the misconception of scratching or biting is rewarding.

Curtail Scratching and Biting Behavior:

  • Start young or as soon as possible to teach your cat acceptable limits. When your kitty nips you while playing, say “NO” firmly and move your limp away, disengage yourself and walk away to signal the game is done. Done consistently, the kitten will soon associate biting or scratching as dismissal and will refrain from doing so.
  • If you want to discourage love bites, pressing back steadily but gently against the bite will make it unpleasant for the cat and prevent further chomp down. Pulling away too fast from a play grab or bite is likely to get yourself clawed or bitten accidentally
  • Invest in a cat scratching pole or two will keep the cat’s claw short and also provide a good workout session for your cat. A contented and tired cat is less likely to cause any harm than one that is bored with excess energy.
  • Engage your cat in multiple 5-minute play sessions with laser light or LED pointer, string toys, a roll of yarn or other suitable toys that do not include your fingers or toes will keep your cat stimulated, energy well spent, and all your digits safe.
  • If a cat is particularly problematic and does not react to normal technique, neutering is an option. A neutered cat is known to be more sociable and easier to get along with.

Learn to read aggression behavior:

  • A displeasure cat may hiss, growl, or ululating, or tipping back his ears flat against his head.
  • A cat ready for preemptive strike likely to arch his back with skin rippling, and growl aggressively. His whiskers may point forward and mouth draws back. Ears flat and point backward.
  • A cornered cat likely to crouch and look nervously from side to side, looking for an escape path. Failure to do so will likely see him strike out defensively.

Possible reasons why cats scratch or bite:

  • The cat may be anxious or stressed. A change in people, environment, and abusive toddler may cause the cat to feel cornered and strike out. The best option is to restore the ambiance as much as possible, and as soon as possible. Tune down the volume on TV, separates the crying or noisy kids from the cat. Teach the kids not to chase the cat around or pull its tail. No hitting or shouting at the cat. Learn how to pet the cat the correct way.
  • The cat may be in pain or not well. A cat in pain or unwell may become defensive and lash out. A trip to a veterinarian clinic may determine the health issue and proper treatment can be prescribed. Once the underlying health issue is treated, the cat temperament is likely to improve as well.
  • An older cat may not welcome being cuddled or picked up. They just want to be left alone in peace.
  • The cat may merely too excited in play. To curtail over play, please refer to earlier sections of this article.

Cats react best to positive reinforcement and consistency in treatments, praising and treat rewarding for appropriate behavior will mold your cat to be well behaved and well loved. Scolding, hitting, chasing and other negative gestures likely to turn your cat into a scared confused cat ready to defense itself at any possible perceived threat.


Cleaning Out Cat Litter Box

Every sane person loves to cuddle a cat, but I doubt the equally sane person would actually willingly, happily, voluntarily loves to clean out a cat litter box. But clean we must, for the health of our beloved cats as well as for the health of the cohabiting humans.

Cat feces are known to contain numerous pathogens that are harmful to humans. Among them, Bartonella henselae bacteria which causes cat-scratch disease and Toxoplasma gondii parasite which causes toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women are advised not to handle cat waste if possible as these pathogens may harm the development of fetuses and the health of the mothers.

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) 2012 pet ownership statistic, thirty percent of American households own cats, averaging 2.1 cats per household, translating to more than 74 million cats living closely with us. That also means there are lots of cat litter to clear every single day across America.

In fact, cat litter clearing is such a headache to some cat owners that a wide range of litter box designs has sprung out, ranging from the old fashion open tray, disposable, to a self-cleaning litter box and everything in between. Some clever owners have even taught their equally clever cats to use the toilet and flushing after use.

Our feline friends are fastidious in nature. Each cat prefers its own litter box and the litter box cleaned and changed on regular basis. Failure to do so, the cat will likely choose to do its business where you do not want them to be. You have been warned, so don’t get mad.

If you have a basic tray type litter box, use a scooper to gather the waste and remove them from the litter at least once a day. Once a week, throw out the soiled litter, thoroughly wash the box with detergent and water, dried, and refill with fresh litter to about 2-3 inches high. Waste and soiled litter need to go into a wide-mouth trash bag immediately and into the outdoor waste receptacle when removing from tray to minimize flying litter dust. Avoid cleaning the kitty’s litter box in the kitchen at all cost, instead, do it either outdoor, in the bathtub, or in the laundry room. You might want to consider wearing mask and gloves if you are unwell or prone to catching whatever flu bugs flying around. Don’t forget to wash your hands thoroughly after handling the raking or cleaning.

If you are allergic to litter box cleaning or simply too occupied with other things in life, there are various self-cleaning litter box designs that you may consider investing. The well-designed litter boxes allow you weeks of litter-free experience. One of the better designs I have seen is a self cleaning litter box with disposable box, prefilled with crystalline material. When your cat uses the litter box, the crystals immediately absorb moisture and odor and begin to dehydrate solids. Some minutes later, a rake automatically sweeps the waste into a covered compartment, leaving the litter near soiled-less and fresh. You may not even need to replace the disposable litter tray for half a month or so. Nearly hands-off convenience and excellent odor control. I want one too.

The ultimate bliss is probably when your cat uses the toilet just as you do. It is possible to train your cat to use the toilet seat. Yes, it requires time, patience and the correct tools but think about the time and cost saving a couple of months down the road!

During the toilet training period, you will be shaping your cat behavior and slowly progressing it to use the toilet. Training starts by placing a training seat on your toilet bowl filled with a sufficient amount of litter. After your cat has adapted, you will cut a small hole in the center of the training seat and slowly make the hole larger and larger until it’s completely open. When this is complete your cat will have completely adapted to using the toilet and you will no longer need the training seat. You may even train your cat to flush after use. Based on your toilet flushing mechanism, you can put a toy or catnip on a flat top press button to encourage them to press on the button. If you have a lever type of flushing mechanism, you may need to tie a string between the lever to something nearby so that your cat can pull on the string to trigger flushing.

When all done and successful, you can really sit back with a cuppa with your cat on your lap and a book in your hands. What a bliss! It may take months before your cat is totally adjusted to using the toilet, but the reward will soon get you to forget about the pain and the numerous accidents. Just be patient and back off a little if your cat becomes reluctant or confused.

We love our kitties, don’t we?


Do cats actually need their nails clipped?

If your cat’s digits look more like talons than nails, then the answer is a definitely ‘yes’. Otherwise, it depends.

My mum’s cat, Devil, is a monster with the meanest looking talons. How do they get to be so long? Well, for one thing, my mum has this belief that nail trimming is for the benefits of humans but do nothing for the cat. Secondly, he absolutely would not let anyone else come close to its paws. So grew they did!
Pixabay Image 948432 My mum does have a valid point, except that Devil has a bit of trouble moving around the house because his long claws entangled on things. His long claws also turn potential human playmates away as you’re likely to get scratched one way or the other. In principle, I guess cats suppose to take care of their claws by scratching on things or chew them down naturally. But Devil, the lazy and mighty, has turned into a fat Grim Ripper with ten miniature scythes at his disposal.

Cats claws, literally and figuratively speaking, can be an agent of death. Not only their claws can get razor-sharp that give you nasty scratches or punctured holes intentionally or accidentally, they are known for harboring harmful pathogens that can caused illnesses such as cat-scratch disease. If the claws get too long, it is uncomfortable for the cat as well, their claws get caught into rugs and fabrics, and bloody paw may happen, or the nails have gotten so long, they curved inwards and cut into the toe pads.

Invest in a couple of suitable scratching poles and entice the cat to use them, is probably the least stressful way to keep the claw length in checked. Please read related articles: How to Select a Suitable Scratching Post for Your Cat and Training Your Cat to Use the Scratching Post may be helpful in providing necessary information on scratching material selection as well as how to get the kitty to actually use them!

However, human interference is probably needed every so often, especially for indoor cats, less active cats and senior cats. If the claws are visible when the cat is just lounging around, a trim is likely due. A cat usually will grow accustomed to toenails being trimmed if the session is full of petting, praising, and plentiful of tasty treats. Give it a few trial runs before calling it quits and speed dial the vet or groomer. It can be a wonderful bonding time between the kitty and you.

How To Keep Your Cat’s Claws Short may be helpful for new cat owner accomplishes the task. Give it a try!


Cat-scratch Disease’s Ophthalmic

Cat-scratch disease is an infection of organism Bartonella Henselae bacteria. In the United States, about 22,000 new infections of cat-scratch disease are reported annually, usually caused by scratch or bite by cats. Clinically, official identification of the disease demands confirmation of three out of four of the following criteria:

  • Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes (Lymphadenopathy)
  • Confirmed cat interaction, preferably with blister or papule at contact point
  • Affirmative Bartonella H. skin or titer test
  • Presence of bacilli, and necrosis (premature death of cells) in lymph node biopsy

Bartonella is transmitted via the common flea, Ctenocephalides felis, to the cat, subsequently to the human host.

Slightly above 10% of cat-scratch disease patients may develop ophthalmic manifestations. They includes:

  • Neuroretinitis (inflammation of the neural retina and optic nerve)
  • Parinaud’s oculoglandular (pink eye) syndrome
  • Focal chorioretinitis (inflammation of retina and choroid)


  • Treatment is debated. It is widely attested that patients usually will improve in a timely manner. However, many reports support treatment may reduce recovery duration. Treatments usually include doxycycline, rifampin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, with steroid drop at the later stage.
    After full recovery from the disease, a patient may still experience residual vision field shortcoming, decreased contrast sensitiveness and vision acuteness, and discoloration of the sectoral disc on examination. Typically, lipid exudates in the form of a star is seen on the macular with a swollen optic disc. Eventually, the macular star will be resolved too.



Cats on Human Health

Cats typically weigh less than ten pounds. However, domesticated house cats inflict a disproportionately high percentage of injury to humans. In the USA, cats accounted to about 400,000 bites per year, that is close to ten percent of all animal bites. Many of these bites will become infected, albeit not seriously, but some may develop into cat-scratch disease, or, occasionally, rabies. About 50% of cats are infected with toxoplasma parasite which is responsible for toxoplasmosis disease. Individuals with weakened immune system and pregnant women or women hope to get pregnant in the near future should be cautious with cats as both toxoplasmosis and cat-scratch disease can bring about serious complications. Physicians usually caution pregnant women from handling soiled cat litter for these reasons.

Roughly ten percent of the U.S. population has some forms of pet allergy with cats being the most likely causes. Contrary to the common thought of the fur or hair as the main culprits of allergy, it is actually the proteins in the cat’s dander (flakes of skin), saliva, and urine that people are allergic to. Allergy is a reaction of a person’s immune system kicking into high gear to defense the body from misinterpreted threats, like cat dander or cat saliva, in relation to cat allergy. Symptoms of allergy can be skin rash, asthma (coughing, wheezing), hay fever, red and/or itchy eyes, runny and/or itchy nose. While most pet owners are able to acclimate themselves to other pets, cat allergy seems to be the hardest to overcome. Some cat lovers opt to take allergy medicine rather than giving up living with cats. Bathing cats frequently to minimize dander is another approach to deal with cat allergy.

Despite the downsides of owning a cat, interactions with cats bring forward much health benefits too. Multiple studies have shown that close association with cat improve both mental and physical health. Their companionship and friendship enhance a sense of worthiness, help to dispel the feeling of anxiety, depression, and loneliness, comparable to a human partner. Many cat owners swear that their cats purring and head butting are their secret weapon against stress at the end of busy days and very good for their blood pressure control and hearts. Several studies have shown that cats appreciate and love their owners, provided time and effort are put in by the owners to develop bonding and friendship.

Risk of Pregnant Woman Catching Toxoplasmosis From Pet Cat

Like the cat-scratch disease, toxoplasmosis is a common disease in cats and can be transmitted to humans. The study has shown that six out of every ten cats are affected by toxoplasmosis at some stage of their life. Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic illness that target warm-blooded creatures, including human. Its effects on both cat and human are mostly limited to flu-like symptoms. However, there are exceptions:

  • In pregnant women, the illness may cause irreversible damage to the unborn baby.
  • In an individual with a compromised immune system, the disease can sometimes be deadly.


Causes of Toxoplasmosis:
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a single-celled organism called Toxoplasma gondii, it is prevalent in birds and mammals. Toxoplasma lives and proliferates inside infected cat’s intestines. The offspring discharges out of the cat’s body through cat defecation in egg-like forms. Several spores are released after a few days from these forms. The spores can survive for months until they are picked up by a rodent or bird. Inside these mammal bodies, the spores hatched and the parasites enter the bloodstream after tunnel through the gut wall and travel all over the body. Cats are infected or reinfected when they kill and eat the infected mammals.

How Do I Know If My Cat Is Infected:
Stray and free-ranging cats are more likely to be infected by toxoplasmosis as they hunt and consume small mammals that could be a host of toxoplasmosis. The infection is usually harmless and the infected cat may not exhibit any sign of illness at all. However, kittens, elderly cats and cats with a weaker immune system may show signs of illness. If kittens are infected while in their mother’s womb, the implication could be serious.

Symptoms And Treatments of Toxoplasmosis In Cats:
Most healthy cats do not show any sign of illness when infected by toxoplasmosis. If they do, the cats may initially seem depressed, tired, disinterest in food, and fever. At later stage, pneumonia may induce breathlessness, liver damage may induce jaundice, and damages to eyes and brain may lead to blindness and changed behavior
There is no vaccine developed to prevent your cat from the infection. If negatively affected cat was treated sufficiently early with a drug that stop the parasites from multiplying, recovery is swift.

The effects of Toxoplasmosis on Human:
Toxoplasma will infect fifty percent of the population during our lifetime, but normally it causes nothing more than a short flu-like infection in humans. However, it can lead to serious issues if a pregnant woman comes into contact with it for the first time during pregnancy. The parasites may cause loss of the baby or the baby born with eyes or brain impairment. About fifty percent of infected pregnant women will infect the baby through the placenta. Out of this fifty percent, ten percent will result in grave damage. Immunodeficiency individuals such as HIV patients, cancer patients should be very cautious with toxoplasmosis as well.

Steps to avoid toxoplasmosis infection:
Consuming rare or undercooked meat, unpasteurized dairy products, or unwashed vegetables is the common mean of infection in America. Contaminated cat feces can be a source of infection as well.
Cook all source of meat completely. Food heated to 160°F (71°C) for not less than 15 minutes destroys the parasites effectively.

  • Wash thoroughly all cooking surfaces and utensils after handling raw meat.
  • Commercially prepared foods are safer for your cat.
  • If possible, keep them indoor to prevent them from hunting small mammals and birds.
  • Wash vegetables thoroughly and trim root end to remove any traces of soil.
  • Wear gloves when gardening and wash your hands thoroughly afterwards.
  • Cover sandpit after play to prevent cats using it as a toilet.
  • Clear cat’s litter tray every day.
  • Wash litter trays routinely with hot water and detergent.

What if I am, or wish to become, pregnant?
Any woman who is currently pregnant or wishes to become pregnant in the near future should avoid raw foods as listed above and should avoid clearing out the litter box. Touching or petting a cat will not lead to toxoplasmosis, even a cat scratches or bites will not infect you with the parasites, unlike cat-scratch disease.

What is Cat Scratch Disease?

You are likely aware of cat scratch disease or cat scratch fever, but you may not be aware of that this infection is caused by bacteria found in flea excrement! Humans may catch the disease if bitten or scratched by an infected cat. It is estimated 40% of the cat population in America is affected by this bacteria, although they rarely show any sign of illness.

What Are the Typical Symptoms of Cat Scratch Disease/Fever?
A person infected with cat scratch disease may notice small red bumps where they have been scratched or bitten. Swollen and painful lymph nodes near the skin-breaking point likely to occur next. Swollen lymph node may require a few months to fully recover. Other symptoms may include:

  • Low-grade fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Skin lesion
  • Joint and bodily pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Symptoms typically clear up in a timely manner with nothing more than over-the-counter medication for symptomatic treatment if needed, but serious complications requiring extensive treatment do arise, affecting the heart, spleen, kidney, eye, skin, nerves, and joints. Young children with an underdeveloped immune system, pregnant women, and immunocompromised individuals, such as cancer or HIV patients are more at risk than the general population.

How Is Cat Scratch Disease Transmitted?
There are a few bacterial organisms, most commonly Bartonella henselae, that cause cat scratch disease. Bartonella henselae is commonly found in cat fleas. When the cat scratches or lick herself, the infected flea and the feces gets into her claws or mouth, infecting the cat. The infection is further spread when the cat scratches or bites a person or other cats. Kittens accounted to a higher rate of human infections if compare to adult cats, primarily they tend to scratch and bite more during play.

Which Cats Are Most Likely to Be Infected?
Cats living in humid, warm, flea-friendly climates are more likely to be infected by cat scratch disease. According to statistic collected by health institutions, about 40 percent of cat is infected as some point in their lives.

How Can I Tell If My Cat Is Infected?
Most cats who have the cat scratch disease appear healthy with no signs of any infection. At this point, there is no straightforward test for Bartonella henselae, diagnosis is usually carried out for clinically ill cats. If you are wondering whether your cat is infected, consult your veterinarian for best treatment options.

How Are Infected Cats Treated?
Cats infected with Bartonella are sometimes prescribed oral antibiotics, but it is not always effective. Likewise in infected human.

How To Avoid Getting Cat Scratch Disease?
Precautionary practices are best to reduce your chances of getting cat scratch disease. They are:

  • Keep cats indoors as much as possible to reduce contact to fleas and ticks.
  • Do not forcefully restrain, hug, or rough play with cats that could result in scratching and biting.
  • Trimmed your cat’s claws frequently or invest in one or two good cat scratching poles
  • If you get scratched or bitten by a cat, wash immediately with soap and running water.
  • Follow an effective flea control plan, diligently!
  • Do not let any cat lick open wounds, scabs, or cuts you may have.
  • Do not let your cat lick close to your eye.
  • If there is an immunocompromised individual in the household, seek medical consultation before getting a cat.



When to consult a doctor if you have been bitten or scratched by a cat?

If you (or your loved one) have been scratched or bitten by a cat, you may be infected by a bacteria that caused cat-scratch disease or otherwise known as cat-scratch fever.

The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of bump or blister after 3 to 10 days on the punctured spots. It may take awhile for the bump or blister to completely heal. After a further 1 to 7 weeks, the lymph node closest to the punctured spots may swell to an inch or more. The swollen node can be painful and fluid filled. At this point, you are likely to have mild fever. The swollen lymph node may take a few months to fully subside.

For most people, the disease does not cause any more problem than the symptoms described above, you may not even aware of any noticeable change in yourself. However, it can lead to other complications for children under the age of 5, pregnant women, or HIV and cancer patients and individuals with compromised immune system.

It is prudent to consult your family doctor if you are aware of any of the following problems:

• A cat bite or scratch punctured point that does not appear to progressively healing.
• Rash or reddish area surrounding the punctured points that is still enlarging after 2 days.
• Fever higher than 102 F or low grade fever that lasts for several days.
• Painful and unusually large swollen lymph nodes
• Joint or bone pain
• Abdominal pain
• Unusual lengthy and severeness of tiredness

In most cases, cat-scratch disease do not need treatment. The use of antibiotics on persistent swollen and painful lymph nodes is debated.

Should you be concerned if your child is diagnosed with cat-scratch disease?

If your child’s doctor told you your child has contracted cat-scratch disease from a cat or kitten, you probably should heave a sigh of relief. Because among all the infectious diseases a young child can pick up, cat-scratch disease is probably one of the most benign infections. Young children under the age of five and those with compromised immune system such as HIV or cancer patients may need to take extra precautions. Otherwise, the general public usually can handle the infections in timely manner.

Cat-scratch disease (CSD), also known as cat-scratch fever is a bacterial infections transmitted by cat fleas to cats or kittens. In turns, when a cat inflicted a skin-breaking scratch or bite to a person, an entry is provided for the bacteria Bartonella henselae to infect a human. The disease can also spread through contact with the cat saliva or blood on unhealed wounds or mucous surfaces.
Most of the time, an CSD infected cat or kitten does not exhibit any sign of sickness. This is also true for some children.

The common symptoms of CSD is the appearance of blisters or bumps at the wound site 2 to 10 days after the injury occurred. Lymph nodes closest to the wound sites may become swollen and sore after 1 week to 7 weeks later. Low grade fever may accompanied the swollen nodes as well. At this point, the child may appear lethargic and lack of appetite. When swollen node occurs, it is always a good practice to consult a doctor. A doctor usually starts treating a CSD patient with symptomatic treatment for the pain and fever with over-the-counter ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Applying a warm compresses to the swollen lymph nodes can provide some relief to the child. Incision and drainage of the swollen lymph nodes although seems logical and tempting, it is not encouraged as it may lead to secondary infections. Antibiotics are not necessary but may be prescribed primarily to lessen the pain but does not shorten the recovery period.

CSD although wide spread, it is rather harmless and self-limiting. A child usually will recover fully soon with only symptomatic treatments. The disease can not spread from one person to another, so it is not necessary to stay away from child care, preschool, or school. The other plus point of the disease is that the child usually becomes immune to the disease in the future.

Please refer to the article “How to Prevent Your Child from Contracting Cat-Scratch Disease” for further information.